First Language Acquisition Development Theories: Nature vs. Nurture

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We are Wired to Acquire Language

“When we study human language, we are approaching what some might call the ‘human essence,’ the distinctive qualities of mind that are, so far as we know, unique to man.”  (Noam Chomsky)

Unlike the behaviourist approach that does not take into consideration the child’s own cognitive processes,  the ‘Innateness Hypothesis’ proposed by linguist Noam Chomsky supports the idea that language acquisition has a biological foundation. Facts that support this theory include the following:

  •  Children acquire language sounds in a certain sequence, and the first sounds that children learn are those that are common to all world languages: a stop consonant followed by an open vowel:  thus a child’s first utterances are usually those found in words for ‘mother’ and ‘father,’ sounds such as ‘pa,’ ‘ma,’ ‘ba’ or ‘ta,’ as seen in French: maman, papa; Greek: mama, baba; Hebrew: eema, aba.
  • Children tend to learn language in the same sequence, suggesting that universality of language exists and the environment alone cannot be responsible for language acquisition.
  • Children acquire function words such as ‘or’ and ‘on’ and the less salient sounds connected to possessives, pluralisation and third person singular in a certain order. Interestingly, the plural ‘s’ and other forms of ‘s’ are not all developed in unison.

Language Development: An Innate Neurological Process

For language development to occur, interaction has to take place; language cannot be acquired passively. Although imitation and habit forming do have a role in language acquisition, children seem predisposed to acquire speech and competency in language by being able to map language, possibly onto what Noam Chomsky calls a ‘language acquisition device.’

Further Reading:

Chomsky, N. Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin, and Use. (1986). Praeger.

Chomsky, N. Language and Mind. Third edition. (2006). Cambridge University Press.

Skinner, B. F. Verbal Behavior. (2009). Copley Publishing Group.

IASCL. Trends in Language Acquisition. Accessed December 7, 2011.

Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Language Acquisition and Language Processing Lab. Accessed December 7, 2011.

Cornell University. Virtual Center for the Study of Language Acquisition. Accessed December 7, 2011.

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© Copyright 2011 Lesley Lanir, All rights Reserved. Written For: Decoded Science

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Comments

  1. an interesting article and useful for my seminar research but it lack facts and figures.

  2. hi
    thanks for your useful info in this article
    i am linguistics student and i am writing a book about this issue so if you have any sources i would be more than glad to get your help
    p.s.
    if you don’t mind i want to use some part of your article
    thanks again

  3. Very succesful and the most clear article about language acqusation! Congratulate you!
    Fatma from Turkey.

  4. Lesley Lanir Lesley Lanir says:

    Doreen, thank you for taking the time to read my article and for your comment. Wishing you all the best with your research paper.
    Best regards Lesley Lanir

  5. Doreen Vanselous says:

    I think your article is excellent. I am currently working on a research paper for school and I think your article is informative and well written.

    Thanks, Doreen Vanselous

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